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Namo Sakyamauni Buddha!
Dear all the most venerable Bikkhu and Bikkhuni!
Dear all Dharma friends!
 The Buddha had been born on year 624 BC in India. He đi give teaching to everyone during 49 years. India became Buddhist country. Because the king and all lay peoples worshiped Buddha.
Nowaday, Indian Buddhism is only 0,7 % of Indian populution. You can research the website link below
( )
Religion 79.8% Hinduism
14.2% Islam
2.3% Christianity
1.7% Sikhism
0.7% Buddhism
0.4% Jainism
0.9% other
Why is the Indian Buddhism only 0,7 of Indian populution?
Because the Hindhuist king destroyed Buddhism since 2 th BC and the Muslim destroyed Buddhism on century 13 th until century 16 th.
In The Buddha `s time, year 624 BC until the Ashoka `s time year 232 BC and in the ending of Maurya dynasty year 180, the most of king supported Buddhism. So Buddhism developed very fast and spred whole India. Parcular, in the Ashoka `s time, He Propagated Buddhism abroad.
This is the website link about the history of Ashoka king.


Ashoka's early life

Ashoka was born to the Mauryan emperor, Bindusara and Subhadrangī (or Dharmā).[14] He was the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, founder of the Maurya dynasty and the builder of one of the largest empires in ancient India.[15][16][17] According to Roman historian Appian, Chandragupta had made a "marital alliance" with Seleucus;[18][19] An Indian Puranic source, the Pratisarga Parva of the Bhavishya Purana, also described the marriage of Chandragupta with a Greek ("Yavana") princess, daughter of Seleucus.[20]
The ancient Buddhist, Hindu, and Jain texts provide varying biographical accounts. The Avadana texts mention that his mother was queen Subhadrangī. According to the Ashokavadana, she was the daughter of a Brahmin from the city of Champa.[21][22]:205 She gave him the name Ashoka, meaning "one without sorrow". The Divyāvadāna tells a similar story, but gives the name of the queen as Janapadakalyānī.[23][24] Ashoka had several elder siblings, all of whom were his half-brothers from the other wives of his father Bindusara. Ashoka was given royal military training.[25]
Conquest of Kalinga & Buddhist conversion
While the early part of Ashoka's reign was apparently quite bloodthirsty, he became a follower of the Buddha's teachings after his conquest of the Kalinga on the east coast of India in the present-day states of Odisha and North Coastal Andhra PradeshKalinga was a state that prided itself on its sovereignty and democracy. With its monarchical parliamentary democracy it was quite an exception in ancient Bharata where there existed the concept of Rajdharma. Rajdharma means the duty of the rulers, which was intrinsically entwined with the concept of bravery and dharma. The Kalinga War happened eight years after his coronation. From his 13th inscription, we come to know that the battle was a massive one and caused the deaths of more than 100,000 soldiers and many civilians who rose up in defence; over 150,000 were deported.[35]

The Diamond throne built by Ashoka at the Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya, at the location where the Buddha reached enlightenment.
Edict 13 of the Edicts of Ashoka Rock Inscriptions expresses the great remorse the king felt after observing the destruction of Kalinga:
Directly after the Kalingas had been annexed began His Sacred Majesty’s zealous protection of the Law of Piety, his love of that Law, and his inculcation of that Law. Thence arises the remorse of His Sacred Majesty for having conquered the Kalingas, because the conquest of a country previously unconquered involves the slaughter, death, and carrying away captive of the people. That is a matter of profound sorrow and regret to His Sacred Majesty.[36]
Legend says that one day after the war was over, Ashoka ventured out to roam the city and all he could see were burnt houses and scattered corpses. The lethal war with Kalinga transformed the vengeful Emperor Ashoka to a stable and peaceful emperor and he became a patron of Buddhism. According to the prominent IndologistA. L. Basham, Ashoka's personal religion became Buddhism, if not before, then certainly after the Kalinga war. However, according to Basham, the Dharma officially propagated by Ashoka was not Buddhism at all.[37] Nevertheless, his patronage led to the expansion of Buddhism in the Mauryan empire and other kingdoms during his rule, and worldwide from about 250 BCE.[38] Prominent in this cause were his son Mahinda (Mahendra) and daughter Sanghamitra (whose name means "friend of the Sangha"), who established Buddhism in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).[39]
          In the year 185 BCE, about fifty years after Ashoka's death, the last Maurya ruler, Brihadratha, was assassinated by the commander-in-chief of the Mauryan armed forces, Pushyamitra Shunga, while he was taking the Guard of Honor of his forces. Pushyamitra Shunga founded the Shunga dynasty (185-75 BCE) and ruled just a fragmented part of the Mauryan Empire. Many of the northwestern territories of the Mauryan Empire (modern-day Afghanistan and Northern Pakistan) became the Indo-Greek Kingdom.[citati


           Bản đồ Ấn Độ dưới thời vua A Dục         
Approach towards religions
According to Indian historian Romila Thapar, Ashoka emphasized respect for all religious teachers, and harmonious relationship between parents and children, teachers and pupils, and employers and employees.[69] Ashoka's religion contained gleanings from all religions.[citation needed] He emphasized the virtues of Ahimsa, respect to all religious teachers, equal respect for and study of each other's scriptures, and rational faith.[citation needed]
Global spread of Buddhism


Stupa of Sanchi. The central stupa was built during the Mauryas, and enlarged during the Sungas, but the decorative gateway is dated to the later dynasty of the Satavahanas.
As a Buddhist emperor, Ashoka believed that Buddhism is beneficial for all human beings as well as animals and plants, so he built a number of stupasSangharamaviharaschaitya, and residences for Buddhist monks all over South Asia and Central Asia. According to the Ashokavadana, he ordered the construction of 84,000 stupas to house the Buddha's relics.[70] In the Aryamanjusrimulakalpa, Ashoka takes offerings to each of these stupas traveling in a chariot adorned with precious metals.[71]He gave donations to viharas and mathas. He sent his only daughter Sanghamitra and son Mahindra to spread Buddhism in Sri Lanka (then known as Tamraparni).
According to the Mahavamsa, in the 17th year of Ashoka's reign, at the end of the Third Buddhist Council, Ashoka sent Buddhist missionaries to nine parts of the world to propagate Buddhism.[72]


Geographical distribution of known capitals of the Pillars of Ashoka. These are all thought to have been commissioned by Ashoka.
Ashoka also invited Buddhists and non-Buddhists for religious conferences. He inspired the Buddhist monks to compose the sacred religious texts, and also gave all types of help to that end. Ashoka also helped to develop viharas (intellectual hubs) such as Nalanda and Taxila. Ashoka helped to constructSanchi and Mahabodhi Temple. Ashoka also gave donations to non-Buddhists. As his reign continued his even-handedness was replaced with special inclination towards Buddhism.[73] Ashoka helped and respected both Shramanas (Buddhists monks) and Brahmins (Vedic monks). Ashoka also helped to organise the Third Buddhist council (c. 250 BCE) at Pataliputra (today's Patna). It was conducted by the monk Moggaliputta-Tissa who was the spiritual teacher of Ashoka.[citation needed]
Emperor Ashoka's son, Mahinda, also helped with the spread of Buddhism by translating the Buddhist Canon into a language that could be understood by the people of Sri Lanka.[74]
It is well known that Ashoka sent dütas or emissaries to convey messages or letters, written or oral (rather both), to various people. The VIth Rock Edict about "oral orders" reveals this. It was later confirmed that it was not unusual to add oral messages to written ones, and the content of Ashoka's messages can be inferred likewise from the XIIIth Rock Edict: They were meant to spread his dhammavijaya, which he considered the highest victory and which he wished to propagate everywhere (including far beyond India). There is obvious and undeniable trace of cultural contact through the adoption of the Kharosthi script, and the idea of installing inscriptions might have travelled with this script, as Achaemenid influence is seen in some of the formulations used by Ashoka in his inscriptions. This indicates to us that Ashoka was indeed in contact with other cultures, and was an active part in mingling and spreading new cultural ideas beyond his own immediate walls.[75]
Shunga dynasty (2nd–1st century BCE)[edit]
You can research the website link below.
Shunga dynasty (2nd–1st century BCE)[edit]
Further information: Shunga Empire

During 2nd century BCE the Sanchistupa was nearly doubled in diameter, was encased in stone, and a balustrade and railing was built around it.[57]
The Shunga dynasty (185–73 BCE) was established about 50 years after Aśoka's death. After assassinating King Brhadrata (last of the Mauryan rulers), military commander-in-chief Pushyamitra Shunga took the throne. Buddhist religious scriptures such as the Aśokāvadānaallege that Pushyamitra (an orthodox Brahmin) was hostile towards Buddhists and persecuted the Buddhist faith. Buddhists wrote that he "destroyed hundreds of monasteries and killed hundreds of thousands of innocent Monks":[58] 840,000 Buddhist stupas which had been built by Aśoka were destroyed, and 100 gold coins were offered for the head of each Buddhist monk.[59][better source needed]
You can reseach the history of the Pushyamitra Shunga king by the website link below.
Indian film Teesri Azadi told about a Hindhuist king orded to kill the Buddhist monks  and destroyed Buddhism.
Pushyamitra Shunga was the first Hinduist king who persecuted Indian Buddhism.
Pushyamitra Shunga
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For the 5th century CE tribe, see Pushyamitras.
Pushyamitra Shunga
Man on a relief, Bharhut, Sunga period, 2nd century BCE.
Shunga Emperor
Reign c. 185 – c. 149 BCE
Predecessor Brihadratha Maurya
Successor Agnimitra
Issue Agnimitra
Dynasty Shunga
Pushyamitra Shunga (IASTPuṣyamitra Śuṅga) (c. 185 – c. 149 BCE) was the founder and first ruler of the Shunga Empire in East India.
Pushyamitra was originally a Senapati"General" of the Maurya Empire. In 185 BCE he assassinated the last Mauryan Emperor, Brihadratha Maurya, during an army review, and proclaimed himself King. Inscriptions of the Shungas have been found as far as the Ayodhya (the Dhanadeva-Ayodhya inscription), and the Divyavadana mentions that he sent an army to persecute Buddhist monks as far as Sakala (Sialkot) in the Punjab regionin the northwest.
The Buddhist texts state that Pushyamitra cruelly persecuted the Buddhists, although some modern scholars have expressed skepticism about these claims.


A silver coin of 1 karshapana of King Pushyamitra Sunga (185-149 BC) of the Sunga dynasty (185-73 BC), workshop of Vidisa (?). Obv: 5 symbols including a sun Rev: 2 symbols.

Bronze coin of the Shunga period, Eastern India. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Several sources suggest that Pushyamitra was a Brahmin, and the 16th century Buddhist scholar Taranathaexplicitly calls him a Brahmin king.[1]However, the various sources offer differing suggestions about which Brahmin gotra (clan) Pushyamitra belonged to. A Puranic manuscript mentions persons who were born of "Shunga, a descendant of Bharadvaja, by a woman married in the family of Kata, a descendant of Vishvamitra". Based on this, K. P. Jayaswal theorized that Shunga was a Brahmin with two gotras (dwaimushyayana or dvigotra): his family traced their ancestry to both Bharadvaja and Vishvamitra lineages.[2]The Pravara Kanda of the Apastambamentions a "Shunga-Shaishiri" gotra. J. C. Ghosh theorized that the Shunga family derived from the Shunga of the Bharadvaja gotra, and the Shaishiri of the Vishvamitra gotra (Kata group).[3][4]
However, the Matsya Purana mentions the "Shunga-Shaishiri" dwaimushyayana gotra (named "Shaunga-Shaishireya" here) as a combination of the Bharadvaja and Kashyapa (not Vishvamitra) gotras. The Harivamsa mentions a twice-born general of the Kashyapa gotra who performed the Ashvamedha sacrifice. Some scholars such as Jayaswal identify this general with Pushyamitra. The Malavikagnimitra describes Pushyamitra as a "Baimbaki". H. C. Raychaudhuri, who read this term as "Baimbika", identified it with Baimbakayah of the Baudhayana Shrauta Sutra, who was of the Kashyapa gotra (although other scholars believe that the term "Baimbaki" signifies descent from a person named Bimba, or refers to a heroic lover in general).[5] Bela Lahiri theorizes that the constituents of a dwaimushyayana gotra may have differed during different periods, and Pushyamitra may have belonged to one of these gotras.[6]
According to the Puranas, Pushyamitra became the king after killing his master Brihadratha, the last Mauryan king. However, the Buddhist text Divyavadana names Pushyamitra as the last Mauryan king.[1] This text appears to have confused Brihadratha with Pushyamitra.[3]
H. C. Raychaudhuri theorized that the name "Shunga" is derived from the Sanskrit word for the fig tree.[7]
Alleged persecution of Buddhists[edit]
Buddhist accounts[edit]
Buddhist texts state that Pushyamitra cruelly persecuted the Buddhists. The earliest source to mention this is the 2nd Century CE text Ashokavadana (a part of Divyavadana). According to this account, Pushyamitra (described as the last Mauryan king) wanted to be famous. His ministers advised him that as long as Buddhism remained the dominant faith, he would never be as famous as his ancestor Ashoka, who had commissioned 84,000 stupas. One advisor told him that he could become famous by destroying Buddhism. Pushyamitra then tried to destroy the Kukkutarama monastery, but it was saved by a miracle. He then proceeded to Shakala in the north-west, where he offered a prize of one hundred dinaras (gold coins) for every head of a Buddhist monk brought to him. Next, he proceeded to the Koshthaka kingdom, where a Buddhist yakshanamed Damshtranivasin killed him and his army with help of another yaksha named Krimisha.[8][6]
... Pushyamitra equipped a fourfold army, and intending to destroy the Buddhist religion, he went to the Kukkutarama (in Pataliputra). ... Pushyamitra therefore destroyed the sangharama, killed the monks there, and departed. ... After some time, he arrived in Sakala, and proclaimed that he would give a ... reward to whoever brought him the head of a Buddhist monk.[9]
Vibhasa, another 2nd century text, states that Pushyamitra burned Buddhist scriptures, killed Buddhist monks, and destroyed 500 monasteries in and around Kashmir. In this campaign, he was supported by yakshas, kumbhandas, and other demons. However, when he reached the Bodhi tree, the deity of that tree took the form of a beautiful woman and killed him.[10]Shariputrapariprichha, translated into Chinese between 317 and 420 CE also mentions this legend, but this particular version is more detailed, and describes eastern India (not Kashmir) as the center of Pushyamitra's anti-Buddhist campaign.[10]
The medieval-era Arya-Manjushri-Mula-Kalpa mentions a wicked and foolish king named Gomimukhya ("cattle-faced"), or Gomishanda ("Gomin, the bull"), who seized the territory from the east to Kashmir, destroying monasteries and killing monks. Ultimately, he and his officers were killed in the north by falling mountain rocks.[10][11] This king is identified with Pushyamitra by some scholars.[12]
The 16th-century Tibetan Buddhist historian Taranatha also states that Pushyamitra and his allies killed Buddhist monks and destroyed monasteries from madhyadesha (midland) to Jalandhara. These activities wiped out the Buddhist doctrine from the north, within five years.[10]
Authenticity of Buddhist claims[edit]
Based on the Buddhist legends, some scholars believe that Pushyamitra was indeed a persecutor of the Buddhist faith. However, others believe that Buddhist scholars were biased against Pushyamitra, because he did not patronize them.[13]
V. A. Smith and H. P. Shastri believed that Pushyamitra's rebellion against the Maurya dynasty was a Brahminical reaction to the rise of Buddhism.[14] According to archaeologist John Marshall, there is evidence of some damage to Buddhist establishments at Takshashila around the time of Shunga rule. He also theorized that the Sanchi stupa was vandalized in 2nd century BCE (that is, during Pushyamitra's reign), before being rebuilt on a larger scale.[15] G. R. Sharma, who excavated the Buddhist ruins at Kaushambi, suggested that the destruction of the local monastery might have happened during the reign of Pushyamitra Shunga. P. K. Mishra believes that the damage to the Deur Kothar stupa is also datable to Pushyamitra's period.[16] H. C. Raychaudhari pointed out that Buddhist monuments were constructed at Bharhut during the Shunga rule.[14] However, according to N. N. Ghosh, these were constructed during the reign of later Shunga rulers, not Pushyamitra's period.[16]
H. Bhattacharya theorized that Pushyamitra might have persecuted Buddhists for political, rather than religious, reasons: the politically active Buddhists probably supported the Indo-Greek rivals of Pushyamitra, which might have prompted him to persecute them.[17] The Ashokavadana states that Pushyamitra declared a reward for killing Buddhist monks in Shakala (present-day Sialkot), which was located near the Indo-Greek frontiers. According to K. P. Jayaswal, this further highlights a political motivation behind his alleged persecution of Buddhists.[18]
Many other scholars have expressed skepticism about the Buddhist claims of persecution by Pushyamitra. Étienne Lamotte points out that the Buddhist legends are not consistent about the location of Pushyamitra's anti-Buddhist campaign and his death.[19] The Ashokavadanaclaims that Pushyamitra offered dinaras as a reward for killing Buddhist monks, but the dinaradid not come into circulation in India before the 1st century CE. Ashokavadana also claims that Ashoka persecuted Nirgranthas (Ajivikas), which is an obvious fabrication, considering that Ashoka's edicts express tolerance towards all religious sects.[20] The Sri Lankan Buddhist text Mahavamsa suggests that several monasteries existed in present-day Bihar, Awadh and Malwa at the time Pushyamitra's contemporary Dutthagamani ruled in Lanka. This suggests that these monasteries survived Pushyamitra Shunga's reign.[17]
H. C. Raychaudhury argued that Pushyamitra's overthrow of the Mauryans cannot be considered as a Brahmin uprising against Buddhist rule, as Brahmins did not suffer during the Mauryan rule: Ashoka's edicts mention the Brahmins before Shramanas, and the appointment of a Brahmin general (Pushyamitra) shows that the Brahmins were honoured at the Mauryan court.[14] The fact that the Ashokavadana mentions Pushyamitra as a Mauryan further erodes its historical credibility, and weakens the hypothesis that he persecuted Buddhists because he was a Brahmin.[20] Raychaudhury also aruged that according to Malavikagnimitra, a Buddhist nun named Bhagavati Kaushiki attended Pushyamitra's court, which indicates that they did not persecute Buddhists. However, Shankar Goyal states that there is no evidence of Kaushiki being a Buddhist nun.[21] Romila Thapar writes that the lack of concrete archaeological evidence casts doubt on the claims of Buddhist persecution by Pushyamitra.[22]
It is possible that the Buddhist influence at the Mauryan court declined during Pushyamitra's reign, and the Buddhist monasteries and other institutions stopped receiving royal patronage. This change might have led to discontent among the Buddhists, resulting in exaggerated accounts of persecution.[18]
Michael Witzel states that Manudharma, which emphasizes the role of orthodox faith in state-craft and society, was first compiled under Pushyamitra's rule. According to Kaushik Roy, it was a Brahmanical reaction to the rise of Buddhism and Jainism.[23]
Indian history told that on the 13th  century, year 1206 until 16th  century, year 1526, the Turkey Muslim occupied India. They destroyed Buddhism such as:
  1. Killing all the Buddhist monks.
  2. Burning all the Buddhist books.
  3. Ruined all Buddhist monuments.
You can research the indian website link below. Islam spread across the Indian subcontinent over a period of 500 years. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established sultanates in Delhi. In the early 16th century, descendants of Genghis Khan swept across the Khyber Pass and established the Mughal Empire , which lasted for 200 years. From the 11th to the 15th centuries, southern India was dominated by Hindu Chola and Vijayanagar Dynasties. During this time, the two systems—the prevailing Hindu and Muslim—mingled, left lasting cultural influences on each other.

Delhi sultanate. [ change | change source ]

The Delhi sultanate was a Muslim kingdom based mostly in Delhi . It ruled large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526) Five dynasties ruled over Delhi Sultanate. They are the : the mamaluk , khilji , tughlaq, sayyid and the lodi dynasties. The mamluk dynasty was started by Qutbuddin Aibak. He was a slave and thus this dynasty is also called Slave Dynasty. Qutubuddin Aibak also made Qutub minar. His son in law, Iltutmish became the ruler after Qutubuddin aibak. He completed the qutub minar.


  • You can also research this website link below.
Turkish Muslim conquerors[edit]
The Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent was marked by iconoclastic invasions into South Asia.[79] By the end of twelfth century, Buddhism had mostly disappeared,[77][80] with the destruction of monasteries and stupas in medieval northwest and western India (now Pakistan and north India).[81]
In the north-western parts of medieval India, the Himalayan regions, as well regions bordering central Asia, Buddhism once facilitated trade relations, states Lars Fogelin. With the Islamic invasion and expansion, and central Asians adopting Islam, the trade route-derived financial support sources and the economic foundations of Buddhist monasteries declined, on which the survival and growth of Buddhism was based.[76][82] The arrival of Islam removed the royal patronage to the monastic tradition of Buddhism, and the replacement of Buddhists in long-distance trade by the Muslims eroded the related sources of patronage.[81][82]
In the Gangetic plains, Orissa, northeast and the southern regions of India, Buddhism survived through the early centuries of the 2nd millennium CE.[76] The Islamic invasion plundered wealth and destroyed Buddhist images,[83] and consequent take over of land holdings of Buddhist monasteries removed one source of necessary support for the Buddhists, while the economic upheaval and new taxes on laity sapped the laity support of Buddhist monks.[76]
Monasteries and institutions such as Nalanda were abandoned by Buddhist monks around 1200 CE, who flee to escape the invading Muslim army, after which the site decayed over the Islamic rule in India that followed.[84][85]
The last empire to support Buddhism, the Pala dynasty, fell in the 12th century, and Muslim invaders destroyed monasteries and monuments.[77] According to Randall Collins, Buddhism was already declining in India before the 12th century, but with the pillage by Muslim invaders it nearly became extinct in India in the 1200s.[86] In the 13th century, states Craig Lockard, Buddhist monks in India escaped to Tibet to escape Islamic persecution;[87] while the monks in western India, states Peter Harvey, escaped persecution by moving to south Indian Hindu kingdoms that were able to resist the Muslim power.[88]
Surviving Buddhists[edit]
See also: Decline of Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent § Survival of Buddhism in India
Many Indian Buddhists fled south. It is known that Buddhists continued to exist in India even after the 14th century from texts such as the Chaitanya Charitamrita. This text outlines an episode in the life of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1533), a Vaisnava saint, who was said to have entered into a debate with Buddhists in Tamil Nadu.[89]
The Tibetan Taranatha (1575–1634) wrote a history of Indian Buddhism, which mentions Buddhism as having survived in some pockets of India during his time.[90] He mentions the Buddhist sangh as having survived in Konkana, Kalinga, Mewad, Chittor, Abu, Saurastra, Vindhya mountains, Ratnagiri, Karnataka etc. A Jain author Gunakirti (1450-1470) wrote a Marathi text, Dhamramrita,[91] where he gives the names of 16 Buddhist orders. Dr. Johrapurkar noted that among them, the names Sataghare, Dongare, Navaghare, Kavishvar, Vasanik and Ichchhabhojanik still survive in Maharashtra as family names.[92]
Buddhism also survived to the modern era in the Himalayan regions such as Ladakh, with close ties to Tibet.[93] A unique tradition survives in Nepal's Newar Buddhism.
Abul Fazl, the courtier of Mughal emperor Akbar, states, "For a long time past scarce any trace of them (the Buddhists) has existed in Hindustan." When he visited Kashmir in 1597 he met with a few old men professing Buddhism, however he 'saw none among the learned'. This is can also be seen from the fact that Buddhist priests were not present amidst learned divines that came to the Ibadat Khana of Akbar at Fatehpur Sikri.[94]
  • The Prince Sikhdhartha attained enlightenment, became a Shakya Mauni Buddha at age 30, year 594 BC. He started to spreach Dharma from this year ( Buddha born in year 624 – 30 age = year 594 BC).
  • Buddhism lasted since year 594 BC until year 185 BC, total was 409 year.
  • From year 185, 2th century BC until beginning of year 1206, 13 century, Indian Buddhism had been destroyed little by little by Hinduism, total was 1391 years ( year 185, 2th BC + year 1206 + 1391 years).
  • From 13th century, year 1206 until 16th, year 1526, the Turkey Muslim destroyed all Buddhism whole India. Total was 320 years. ( from year 1526 – year 1206 = 320 years). Therefore, the source of Indian Buddhism had completely been absend until 18th century.   
India had been conlony under England since 18th century, year 1858. The Royal England gave India independence on 19th century, year 1947, total was 89 years. During this times, Another important historian was British archaeologist John Hubert Marshall, who was director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India. His main interests were Sanchi and Sarnath, in addition to Harappa and Mohenjodaro. Sir Alexander Cunningham, a British archaeologist and army engineer, and often known as the father of the Archaeological Survey of India, unveiled heritage sites like the Bharhut Stupa, Sarnath, Sanchi, and the Mahabodhi Temple. Mortimer Wheeler, a British archaeologist, also exposed Ashokan historical sources, especially the Taxila. They cooperated together to unearth all the Buddha `s monuments and found out all the Ashoka `s Pillars from there. Therefore, we can know all the Buddha `s Monuments now. We would like to say thank you and we all pay grateful all the Bristish and Indian Archeologists very much.
Namo Shakya Mauni Buddha!
Bikkhu Thich Hanh Dinh


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